Petrified wood is usually studied in terms of mineralogy and taxonomy, yet the pathology and conservation needs of in situ petrified forests are not properly addressed. In order to propose a conservation plan according to the needs of each site and each fossil within it, more questions need to be answered. These are: what is the structure, properties and composition of fossils; which are their deterioration factors; what is the nature of the environment in which they are exposed; and to what extent are the various parameters likely to harm the fossils and the site where they are located. Techniques that can be employed,  include in situ observations, sampling, macroscopic observation, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, geographic information systems, photographic documentation, record drawing, 3D laser scanning, automatic weather stations, environmental data-loggers, geological studies, water and moisture absorption tests, and conservation tests.

  • petrified wood
  • XRF
  • XRD
  • GIS
  • fossil deterioration

How to Cite

Kyriazi, E. (2022). Analytical Techniques and Observation Tools for the Diagnosis of the Pathology of in situ Fossil Forests. CONSERVATION 360º, (2). Retrieved from


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